Friday, 23 September 2016

"I'm going", he said.... how about this sentences!


Direct speech repeats, or quotes, the exact words spoken. When we use direct speech in writing, we place the words spoken between quotation marks (" ") and there is no change in these words. We may be reporting something that's being said NOW (for example a telephone conversation), or telling someone later about a previous conversation, or when you quote the actual words of a speaker, it is called DIRECT SPEECH.
Reported or indirect speech is usually used to talk about the past, so we normally change the tense of the words spoken. We use reporting verbs like 'say', 'tell', 'ask', and we may use the word 'that' to introduce the reported words. Inverted commas are not used, or when you report what a speaker said without quoting his exact words, it is called INDIRECT SPEECH.

E.g. direct: -Rahul said, “ I am working now”.
Indirect: -Rahul said that he was working then.
Rules to remember:
*When we change direct speech into indirect speech, note the reporting verb if it is in the past
tense, all present tenses of the direct are changed into the corresponding past tense.

E.g. She said, “I am your teacher”. (direct)
She said that she was our teacher. (indirect).
* The simple present tense of the direct speech becomes the simple past.
E.g. He said, “ I am unwell”. (direct).
He said that he was unwell. (indirect)
*The present perfect tense of the direct speech becomes past perfect in agreement with the
reporting verb.

E.g. “We shall win this match”, the players vowed. (direct)
The players vowed that they would win the match. (Indirect)

* The first and second person pronouns in the direct speech change into the third person pronouns
in the indirect speech.
E.g. Nisha said to Pooja, “I like you a lot”. (direct)
Nisha said to Pooja that she liked her a lot. (indirect)
* If the one who reports is the same as the one addressed we change the second person to first.
E.g. My mother said to me, “ you are a clever girl”. (direct)
My mother said to me that I was a clever girl. (indirect)
* Words that denote nearness in time and place change into words that denote distance.
This becomes that, now becomes then,
These becomes those, ago becomes before,
Here becomes there, today becomes that day.
Tomorrow becomes the next day, Yesterday becomes the previous day,
Last year becomes the previous year.

E.g. Jenkins said to Jenny, “This is our new house”. (direct)
Jenkins said to Jenny that was their new house. (indirect)
E.g. “I saw you in the library yesterday”, the teacher said. (direct)
The teacher said that she saw me in the library the previous day. (indirect).
* In the indirect speech statements are usually introduced by that.
E.g. Anita said to me, “I am your sister’s classmate”. (direct)
Anita said to me that she was my sister’s classmate. (indirect)
* Questions are introduced by words like if, whether, asked or inquired.
E.g. He said to me, “What are you doing?” (direct)
He asked me what I was doing. (indirect)
E.g. “Where do you live?” asked the stranger (direct)
The stranger enquired where I lived. (indirect)
*Commands and request are introduced by words like order, request, or command.

E.g. Ashwin said to me, “Please pass me the butter”. (direct)
Ashwin requested me to pass the butter. (indirect)